Crew Resource Management for Pilots

In British Airways, Safety and Security is our FIRST priority and we put the safety of our customers and crew at the heart of everything we do. Training our pilots is no exception, in fact it probably epitomises our philosophy. We operate in a highly regulated field and consistently aim to exceed the standards that are set for the training and checking of our flight crew. We strive to develop both their technical and non-technical skills throughout their career.

British Airways fully recognises that significant benefit accrues from dedicated Crew Resource Management (CRM) training programs designed to help ‘avoid, trap and mitigate’ the consequences of human error and enhance flight crew Threat and Error Management (TEM) skills. Furthermore, British Airways recognises that the most effective way of achieving these aims is to fully integrate Human Factors (HF) training within the existing technical training structure.

Using our experience in this area we are able to offer the following training opportunities for other airlines:
• Initial CRM training
• Recurrent CRM training
• Command training
• Trainer training, examination and coaching
• Regulatory compliance
• Just Culture
• Cognitive Task Analysis training

All flight training is built around a pragmatic culture of threat and error management which is used on each and every flight. To that end we put a particular focus on the practical application of our training. Particular themes include:
• Leadership and Management
• Teamwork
• Situational Awareness
• Problem Solving and Decision-Making
• Safety Culture
• Emotional Response
• Emotional Health

Open Safety Culture

British Airways have been able to use data from thousands of sectors flown daily over a number of years to create learning packages that are tailored to dealing with a complete scenario rather than an isolated issue. This information can only be generated by an open and just system that all staff trust and utilise on a daily basis. All of our training courses have this philosophy incorporated into each detail.

Specific Regulatory CRM Training

For airlines looking for CRM courses, we can offer 4 EASA compliant courses:
• 1 day recurrent CRM training
• 2 day initial CRM training
• 3 day Command course
• 5 day Type Rating Instructor Part 1 course

We also offer external Examining of Company CRMT’s by BA CRMTE’s.

In addition to CRM training we can also offer the following:
• 1 day Examiner Refresher Seminar (already active)
• 5 day Type Rating Examiner Standardisation Course

Typical content that our training includes:

Situational Awareness (SA)
• A look at what we mean by SA, how it affects the individual, how it affects the team.
• Clues to the loss of SA and the consequences.
• How to avoid low SA or indeed the loss of SA
• Practical tools to build and maintain high SA.

Decision Making (DM)
• The theory of decision making and how human beings make decisions.
• The vulnerabilities of DM and how to guard against them.
• How perceptions of risk vary and affect our decisions.
• A structure to aid effective DM

Threat and Error Management (TEM)
• A look at why TEM is important.
• Identification of latent and active threats.
• Levels of TEM.
• Avoidance of threats and errors.

Workload Management (WM)
• The consequences of not managing our workload and the implications of overload.
• A look at your own individual capacity for work.
• How our emotional state can affect our workload.
• Tools for effective workload management.

Enhancing Team Performance (ETP)
• Effects of health and lifestyle
• Individual and team factors
• The difference between personality and behaviour.
• The importance and effect of feedback.

Setting the Tone (ST)
• The importance of first impressions.
• Establishing the team.
• Authority gradient.
• How leadership styles can affect team performance.

Stress and Fatigue (SF)
• Recognition of the symptoms of stress and fatigue.
• The differences between short and long term stress.
• Effects of stress and fatigue on performance.
• Coping strategies.

Mental Health (MH)
• Understanding what MH means to you.
• Draw parallels between mental and physical health.
• Common treatments of MH issues.
• Prevention of MH issues through wellbeing.

Briefing and Debriefing (BD)
• Why brief?
• A structured approach.
• Techniques for large or small groups
• How to affect change through skilful debriefing.

Communications (CO)
• What is effective communication?
• Resolving ambiguity.
• Question types.
• Active listening.

Non-Normal (Crisis) Management (NNM)
• What Non-Normal means to you.
• Prioritisation.
• A structure for effective NNM.
• Resuming normal operations.

Automation (AM)
• Is automation a friend or a foe?
• Understanding of automation.
• Levels of automation.
• Automation complacency.

Just Culture (JC)
• What a Just Culture looks like.
• The importance of an open reporting culture.
• Protecting the business.
• Empowering individuals.

Risk Management (RM)
• Perceptions of risk.
• Objective risk assessment.
• Balancing risks.
• Risk avoidance mitigations.

Intervention (IN)
• Legitimising intervention
• The effect of authority gradient upon intervention.
• Levels of intervention.
• A strategy for effective intervention.

Teamwork (TW)
• Setting the tone
• Valuing and empowering others
• Emotional Intelligence.
• Conflict management.

Emotional Response (ER)
• Science of the brain
• Startle and surprise
• Emotional hijack
• Coping strategies

Leadership (LS)
• Leader or Manager?
• Situational Leadership.
• What makes a good leader?
• Managing change.

Resilience (RS)
• What is resilience?
• Business and individual resilience.
• Consequences of low resilience.
• Building resilience.

Professionalism (PS)
• What is professionalism?
• What does it look like?
• Individual and corporate ownership.

Fur further information please contact andy.clubb@ba.com