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Principal risks and uncertainties


As noted above, the airline industry is fiercely competitive and will need to rationalise to meet current market conditions. This will involve further airline failures and consolidation. As in all consolidations, a merger with Iberia, and the joint ATI application with Iberia and American Airlines, would introduce integration risks such as a failure to realise planned benefits, brand erosion and other execution risks.

Mergers and acquisitions amongst competitors have the potential to adversely affect our market position and revenue. Certain markets in which we operate remain regulated by governments, in some instances controlling capacity and/or restricting market entry. Relaxation of such restrictions, whilst creating growth opportunities for us, may have a negative impact on our margins.

Debt funding

We carry substantial debt which will need to be repaid or refinanced. Our ability to finance ongoing operations, committed aircraft orders and future fleet growth plans may be affected by various factors including financial market conditions. Although most of our future capital requirements are currently asset-related and already financed, there can be no assurance that aircraft will continue to provide attractive security for lenders in the future.

Employee relations

We have a large unionised workforce. Collective bargaining takes place on a regular basis and a breakdown in the bargaining process could disrupt operations and adversely affect business performance. Our continued effort to reduce employment costs, through increased productivity and competitive wage awards, increases the risk in this area.


Failure to adopt an integrated environmental strategy could lead to deterioration in our reputation and a consequential loss of revenue. An increased focus on corporate responsibility and a published emissions reduction target will help deliver the refocused strategy.

Fuel price and currency fluctuation

We use approximately six million tonnes of jet fuel a year. Volatility in the price of oil and petroleum products can have a material impact on our operating results. This price risk is partially hedged through the purchase of oil and petroleum derivatives in forward markets which can generate a profit or a loss.

The Group is exposed to currency risk on revenue, purchases and borrowings in foreign currencies. The Group seeks to reduce foreign exchange exposures arising from transactions in various currencies through a policy of matching, as far as possible, receipts and payments in each individual currency and selling the surplus or buying the shortfall of its currency obligations.

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