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Note 2: Summary of significant accounting policies

Basis of preparation

The basis of preparation and accounting policies set out in this Report and Accounts have been prepared in accordance with the recognition and measurement criteria of IFRS as issued by the IASB and with those of the Standing Interpretations issued by the International Financial Reporting Interpretations Committee (IFRIC) of the IASB.

The financial statements for the prior period include reclassifications that were made to conform to the current period presentation. The amendments have no material impact on the financial statements.

These financial statements have been prepared on a historical cost convention except for certain financial assets and liabilities, including derivative financial instruments and available-for-sale financial assets that are measured at fair value. The carrying value of recognised assets and liabilities that are subject to fair value hedges are adjusted to record changes in the fair values attributable to the risks that are being hedged.

The Group’s and Company’s financial statements are presented in pounds sterling and all values are rounded to the nearest million pounds (£ million), except where indicated otherwise.

Basis of consolidation

The Group accounts include the accounts of the Company and its subsidiaries, each made up to March 31, together with the attributable share of results and reserves of associates, adjusted where appropriate to conform with the Group’s accounting policies.

Subsidiaries are entities controlled by the Group. Control exists when the Group has the power either directly or indirectly to govern the financial and operating policies of the entity so as to obtain benefit from its activities. Subsidiaries are consolidated from the date of their acquisition, which is the date on which the Group obtains control, and continue to be consolidated until the date that such control ceases.

All intra-group account balances, including intra-group profits, have been eliminated in preparing the consolidated financial statements. Minority interests represent the portion of profit or loss and net assets in subsidiaries that are not held by the Group and are presented separately within equity in the consolidated balance sheet.

Revenue

Passenger and cargo revenue is recognised when the transportation service is provided. Passenger tickets net of discounts are recorded as current liabilities in the ‘sales in advance of carriage’ account until recognised as revenue. Unused tickets are recognised as revenue using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and historical trends.

Other revenue is recognised at the time the service is provided. Commission costs are recognised at the same time as the revenue to which they relate and are charged to operating expenditure.

Revenue recognition – mileage programmes

The Group operates two principal loyalty programmes. The airline’s frequent flyer programme operates through the airline’s ‘Executive Club’ and allows frequent travellers to accumulate ‘BA Miles’ mileage credits that entitle them to a choice of various awards, primarily free travel. The fair value attributed to the awarded mileage credits is deferred as a liability and recognised as revenue on redemption of the miles by the participants to whom the miles are issued. The accounting policy for mileage revenue recognition was amended during the year in line with the adoption of IFRIC 13. Refer to ‘Impact of new International Financial Reporting Standards’ note in this section for impact of the change in policy.

In addition, ‘BA Miles’ are sold to commercial partners to use in promotional activity. The fair value of the miles sold is deferred and recognised as revenue on redemption of the miles by the participants to whom the miles are issued. The cost of the redemption of the miles is recognised when the miles are redeemed.

The Group also operates the AIRMILES scheme, operated by the Company’s wholly-owned subsidiary Air Miles Travel Promotions Limited. The scheme allows companies to purchase miles for use in their own promotional activities. Miles can be redeemed for a range of benefits, including flights on British Airways and other carriers. The fair value of the miles sold is deferred and recognised as revenue on redemption of the miles by the participants to whom the miles are issued. The cost of providing redemption services is recognised when the miles are redeemed.

Segmental reporting

Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for resource allocation and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Management Board. The nature of the operating segments is set out in note 3.

Intangible assets

Intangible assets are held at cost and are either amortised on a straight-line basis over their economic life, or they are deemed to have an indefinite economic life and are not amortised, but tested annually for impairment.

a  Goodwill

Where the cost of a business combination exceeds the fair value attributable to the net assets acquired, the resulting goodwill is capitalised and tested for impairment annually and whenever indicators exist that the carrying value may not be recoverable. Any goodwill arising on the acquisition of equity accounted entities is included within the cost of those entities.

Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units for the purpose of impairment testing.

b  Landing rights

Landing rights acquired from other airlines are capitalised at cost or at fair value, less any accumulated impairment losses. Capitalised landing rights based outside the EU are amortised on a straight-line basis over a period not exceeding 20 years. In October 2008 the Group revised the economic life for landing rights acquired within the EU to that of an indefinite economic life, due to regulation changes in the EU regarding the ability to trade landing rights. Landing rights with indefinite economic lives are reviewed annually for impairment. Had the Group not revised the economic life for landing rights, the amortisation charge for the year would have been £5 million greater than is currently reported.

c  Software

The cost of purchase or development of computer software that is separable from an item of related hardware is capitalised separately and amortised over a period not exceeding four years on a straight-line basis.

The carrying value of intangibles is reviewed for impairment if events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable.

Property, plant and equipment

Property, plant and equipment is held at cost. The Group has a policy of not revaluing property, plant and equipment. Depreciation is calculated to write off the cost less estimated residual value on a straight-line basis, over the useful life of the asset. Residual values, where applicable, are reviewed annually against prevailing market values for equivalently aged assets and depreciation rates adjusted accordingly on a prospective basis.

The carrying value is reviewed for impairment when events or changes in circumstances indicate the carrying value may not be recoverable and the cumulative impairment losses are shown as a reduction in the carrying value of property, plant and equipment.

a  Capitalisation of interest on progress payments

Interest attributed to progress payments, and related exchange movements on foreign currency amounts, made on account of aircraft and other significant assets under construction is capitalised and added to the cost of the asset concerned.

b  Fleet

All aircraft are stated at the fair value of the consideration given after taking account of manufacturers’ credits. Fleet assets owned, or held on finance lease or hire purchase arrangements, are depreciated at rates calculated to write down the cost to the estimated residual value at the end of their planned operational lives on a straight-line basis.

Cabin interior modifications, including those required for brand changes and relaunches, are depreciated over the lower of five years and the remaining life of the aircraft.

Aircraft and engine spares acquired on the introduction or expansion of a fleet, as well as rotable spares purchased separately, are carried as property, plant and equipment and generally depreciated in line with the fleet to which they relate.

Major overhaul expenditure, including replacement spares and labour costs, is capitalised and amortised over the average expected life between major overhauls. All other replacement spares and other costs relating to maintenance of fleet assets (including maintenance provided under ‘pay-as-you-go’ contracts) are charged to the income statement on consumption or as incurred respectively.

c  Property and equipment

Provision is made for the depreciation of all property and equipment, apart from freehold land, based upon expected useful lives, or in the case of leasehold properties over the duration of the leases if shorter, on a straight-line basis.

d  Leased and hire purchase assets

Where assets are financed through finance leases or hire purchase arrangements, under which substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership are transferred to the Group, the assets are treated as if they had been purchased outright. The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment represents the aggregate of the capital elements payable during the lease or hire purchase term. The corresponding obligation, reduced by the appropriate proportion of lease or hire purchase payments made, is included in borrowings.

The amount included in the cost of property, plant and equipment is depreciated on the basis described in the preceding paragraphs and the interest element of lease or hire purchase payments made is included in interest payable in the income statement.

Total minimum payments, measured at inception, under all other lease arrangements, known as operating leases, are charged to the income statement in equal annual amounts over the period of the lease. In respect of aircraft, certain operating lease arrangements allow the Group to terminate the leases after a limited initial period (normally 10 years), without further material financial obligations. In certain cases the Group is entitled to extend the initial lease period on predetermined terms; such leases are described as extendable operating leases.

Inventories

Inventories, including aircraft expendables, are valued at the lower of cost and net realisable value. Such cost is determined by the weighted average cost method.

Interests in associates

An associate is an undertaking in which the Group has a long-term equity interest and over which it has the power to exercise significant influence. The Group’s interest in the net assets of associates is included in investment in associates in the consolidated balance sheet and its interest in their results is included in the income statement, below operating profit. Certain associates make up their annual audited accounts to dates other than March 31. In the case of Iberia, published results up to the year ended December 31 are included. In other cases, results disclosed by subsequent unaudited management accounts are included. The attributable results of those companies acquired or disposed of during the year are included for the periods of ownership.

Cash and cash equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents includes cash in hand and deposits with any qualifying financial institution repayable on demand or maturing within three months of the date of acquisition and which are subject to an insignificant risk of change in value.

Other current interest-bearing deposits

Other current interest-bearing deposits, principally comprising funds held with banks and other financial institutions, are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Such financial assets are classified as held-to-maturity when the Group has the positive intention and ability to hold to maturity. Gains and losses are recognised in income when the deposits are derecognised or impaired, as well as through the amortisation process.

Trade and other receivables

Trade and other receivables are stated at cost less allowances made for doubtful receivables, which approximates fair value given the short dated nature of these assets. A provision for impairment of trade receivables (allowance for doubtful receivables) is established when there is objective evidence that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of the receivable.

Available-for-sale financial assets

Available-for-sale financial assets are those non-derivative financial assets that are not classified as loans and receivables. After initial recognition, available-for-sale financial assets are measured at fair value, with gains or losses recognised as a separate component of equity until the investment is derecognised or until the investment is determined to be impaired, at which time the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in equity is included in the income statement.

The fair value of quoted investments is determined by reference to bid prices at the close of business on the balance sheet date. Where there is no active market, fair value is determined using valuation techniques. Where fair value cannot be reliably estimated, assets are carried at cost.

Employee benefits

a  Pension obligations

Employee benefits, including pensions and other post-retirement benefits (principally post-retirement healthcare benefits) are presented in these financial statements in accordance with IAS 19 ‘Employee Benefits’. The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans. A defined contribution plan is a pension plan under which the Group pays fixed contributions into a separate entity. The Group has no legal or constructive obligations to pay further contributions if the fund does not hold sufficient assets to pay all employees the benefits relating to employee service in the current and prior periods. A defined benefit plan is a pension plan that is not a defined contribution plan. Typically, benefit plans define an amount of pension benefit that an employee will receive on retirement, usually dependent on one or more factors such as age, years of service and compensation.

The asset or liability recognised in the balance sheet in respect of defined benefit pension plans is the present value of the defined benefit obligation at the balance sheet date, less the fair value of plan assets, together with adjustments for unrecognised past service costs. Where plan assets exceed the defined benefit obligation, an asset is recognised to the extent that an economic benefit is available to the Group, in accordance with the terms of the plan and applicable statutory requirements. The benefit should be realisable during the life of the plan or on the settlement of the plan liabilities. Refer to the ‘Impact of new International Financial Reporting Standards’ note in this section for the impact of the adoption of IFRIC 14.

Past service costs are recognised when the benefit has been given. The financing cost and expected return on plan assets are recognised within financing costs in the periods in which they arise. The accumulated effect of changes in estimates, changes in assumptions and deviations from actuarial assumptions (actuarial gains and losses) that are less than 10 per cent of the higher of pension benefit obligations and pension plan assets at the beginning of the year are not recorded. When the accumulated effect is above 10 per cent the excess amount is recognised on a straight-line basis in the income statement over the estimated average remaining service period.

b  Termination benefits

Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed to either terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without possibility of withdrawal, or providing termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy.

Other employee benefits are recognised when the obligation exists for the future liability.

Share-based payments

The fair value of employee share option plans is measured at the date of grant of the option using an appropriate valuation model. The resulting cost, as adjusted for the expected and actual level of vesting of the options, is charged to income over the period in which the options vest. At each balance sheet date before vesting, the cumulative expense is calculated, representing the extent to which the vesting period has expired and management’s best estimate of the achievement or otherwise of non-market conditions, of the number of equity instruments that will ultimately vest. The movement in the cumulative expense since the previous balance sheet date is recognised in the income statement with a corresponding entry in equity.

Taxation

Current tax assets and liabilities are measured at the amount expected to be recovered from or paid to the taxation authorities, based on tax rates and laws that are enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Deferred income tax is recognised on all temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements, with the following exceptions:

  • Where the temporary difference arises from the initial recognition of goodwill or of an asset or liability in a transaction that is not a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss;
  • In respect of taxable temporary differences associated with investments in subsidiaries or associates, where the timing of the reversal of the temporary differences can be controlled and it is probable that the temporary differences will not reverse in the foreseeable future; and
  • Deferred income tax assets are recognised only to the extent that it is probable that taxable profit will be available against which the deductible temporary differences, carried forward tax credits or tax losses can be utilised.

Deferred income tax assets and liabilities are measured on an undiscounted basis at the tax rates that are expected to apply when the related asset is realised or liability is settled, based on tax rates and laws enacted or substantively enacted at the balance sheet date.

Income tax is charged or credited directly to equity if it relates to items that are credited or charged to equity. Otherwise income tax is recognised in the income statement.

Provisions

Provisions are made when an obligation exists for a future liability in respect of a past event and where the amount of the obligation can be reliably estimated. Restructuring provisions are made for direct expenditures of a business reorganisation where the plans are sufficiently detailed and well advanced and where appropriate communication to those affected has been undertaken at the balance sheet date. If the effect is material, expected future cash flows are discounted using a rate that reflects, where appropriate, the risks specific to the liability. Where discounting is used, the increase in the provision due to unwinding the discount is recognised as a finance cost.

Foreign currency translation

Transactions in foreign currencies are initially recorded in the Group’s functional currency, sterling, by applying the spot exchange rate ruling at the date of the transaction. Monetary foreign currency balances are translated into sterling at the rates ruling at the balance sheet date. All other profits or losses arising on translation are dealt with through the income statement except where hedge accounting is applied.

The net assets of foreign operations are translated into sterling at the rate of exchange ruling at the balance sheet date. Profits and losses of such operations are translated into sterling at average rates of exchange during the year. The resulting exchange differences are taken directly to a separate component of equity until all or part of the interest is sold, when the relevant portion of the cumulative exchange is recognised in the income statement.

Derivatives and financial instruments

Under IAS 39 ‘Financial Instruments – Recognition and Measurement’, financial instruments are recorded initially at fair value. Subsequent measurement of those instruments at the balance sheet date reflects the designation of the financial instrument. The Group determines the classification at initial recognition and re-evaluates this designation at each year end except for those financial instruments measured at fair value through the income statement.

Other investments (other than interests in associates) are designated as available-for-sale financial assets and are recorded at fair value. Any change in the fair value is reported in equity until the investment is sold, when the cumulative amount recognised in equity is recognised in the income statement. In the case of equity securities classified as available-for-sale investments, a significant or prolonged decline in the fair value of the security below its cost is considered as an indicator that the security is impaired. If any such evidence exists for available-for-sale financial assets, the cumulative gain or loss previously reported in equity is included in the income statement.

Exchange gains and losses on monetary items are taken to the income statement unless the item has been designated and is assessed as an effective hedging instrument in accordance with the requirement of IAS 39. Exchange gains and losses on non-monetary investments are reflected in equity until the investment is sold when the cumulative amount recognised in equity is recognised in the income statement.

Long-term borrowings are recorded at amortised cost. Certain leases contain interest rate swaps that are closely related to the underlying financing and, as such, are not accounted for as an embedded derivative.

Derivative financial instruments, comprising interest rate swap agreements, foreign exchange derivatives and fuel hedging derivatives (including options, swaps and futures), are measured at fair value on the Group balance sheet.

Cash flow hedges

Changes in the fair value of derivative financial instruments are reported through operating income or financing according to the nature of the instrument, unless the derivative financial instrument has been designated as a hedge of a highly probable expected future cash flow. Gains and losses on derivative financial instruments designated as cash flow hedges and assessed as effective for the period, are taken to equity in accordance with the requirements of IAS 39. Gains and losses taken to equity are reflected in the income statement when either the hedged cash flow impacts income or its occurrence ceases to be probable.

Certain loan repayment instalments denominated in US dollars, euro and Japanese yen are designated as cash flow hedges of highly probable future foreign currency revenues. Exchange differences arising from the translation of these loan repayment instalments are taken to equity in accordance with IAS 39 requirements and subsequently reflected in the income statement when either the future revenue impacts income or its occurrence ceases to be highly probable.

Impairment in financial assets

The Group assesses at each balance sheet date whether a financial asset or group of financial assets is impaired.

Investment in own shares

Shares in the Company held by the Group are classified as ‘Investments in own shares’ and shown as deductions from shareholders’ equity at cost. Consideration received for the sale of such shares is also recognised in equity, with any difference between the proceeds from the sale and the original cost being taken to reserves.

No gain or loss is recognised in the income statement on the purchase, sale, issue or cancellation of equity shares.

Derecognition of financial assets and liabilities

A financial asset or liability is generally derecognised when the contract that gives rise to it has been settled, sold, cancelled or has expired.

Where an existing financial liability is replaced by another from the same lender on substantially different terms, or the terms of an existing liability are substantially modified, such an exchange or modification is treated as a derecognition of the original liability and the recognition of a new liability, such that the difference in the respective carrying amounts together with any costs or fees incurred are recognised in the income statement.

Exceptional items

Exceptional items are those that in management’s view need to be disclosed by virtue of their size or incidence. Such items are included on the income statement under a caption to which they relate, and are separately disclosed in the notes to the consolidated financial statements.

Discontinued operations

Disposal groups are classified as discontinued operations where they represent a major line of business or geographical area of operations.

Key accounting estimates and judgements

The preparation of financial statements requires management to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. These estimates and associated assumptions are based on historical experience and various other factors believed to be reasonable under the circumstances. Actual results could differ from these estimates. These underlying assumptions are reviewed on an ongoing basis. Revisions to accounting estimates are recognised in the period in which the estimate is revised if the revision affects only that period, or in the period of the revision and future periods if these are also affected. The estimates and assumptions that have a significant risk of causing a material adjustment to the carrying amounts of assets and liabilities within the next financial year are discussed below.

a  Impairment of non-financial assets

The Group assesses whether there are any indicators of impairment for all non-financial assets at each reporting date. Goodwill is tested for impairment annually and at other times when such indicators exist. The recoverable amounts of cash-generating units have been determined based on value-in-use calculations. These calculations require the use of estimates (note 19).

Other non-financial assets are tested for impairment when there are indicators that the carrying amounts may not be recoverable.

b  Share-based payments

The Group measures the cost of equity-settled transactions with employees by reference to the fair value of the equity instruments at the date at which they are granted. Estimating fair value requires determining the most appropriate valuation model for a grant of equity instruments, which is dependent on the terms and conditions of the grant.

This also requires determining the most appropriate inputs to the valuation model including the expected life of the option and volatility and making assumptions about them. The assumptions and models used are disclosed in note 34.

c  Pensions and other post-retirement benefits

The cost of defined benefit pension plans and other post-employment medical benefits is determined using actuarial valuations. The actuarial valuation involves making assumptions about discount rates, expected rates of return on assets, future salary increases, mortality rates and future pension increases. Due to the long-term nature of these schemes, such estimates are subject to significant uncertainty and are disclosed in note 36.

d  Impairment of available-for-sale financial assets

The Group classifies certain financial assets as available-for-sale and recognises movements in their fair value in shareholders’ equity. When the fair value declines, management makes assumptions about the decline in value to determine whether it is an impairment that should be recognised in the income statement. Impairment losses recognised in the income statement are disclosed in note 11.

e  Passenger revenue recognition

Passenger revenue is recognised when the transportation is provided. Ticket sales that are not expected to be used for transportation (‘unused tickets’) are recognised as revenue using estimates regarding the timing of recognition based on the terms and conditions of the ticket and historical trends.

During the current year, changes in estimates regarding the timing of revenue recognition primarily for unused flexible tickets were made, resulting in increased revenue in the current year of £109 million.

During the prior year, changes in estimates regarding the timing of revenue recognition for unused restricted tickets were made, resulting in increased revenue in the prior year of £36 million.

Both the above changes reflect more accurate and timely data obtained through the increased use of electronic tickets.

Impact of new International Financial Reporting Standards

The accounting policies adopted are consistent with those of the previous financial year except as follows:

IFRIC 13 ‘Customer Loyalty Programmes’; effective for periods beginning on or after July 1, 2008, which addresses accounting by entities that operate or otherwise participate in customer loyalty programmes for their customers. IFRIC 13 applies to sales transactions in which the entities grant their customers award credits that, subject to meeting further qualifying conditions, the customers can redeem in the future for free or discounted goods or services. The interpretation requires that an entity recognises credits that it awards to customers as a separately identifiable component of revenue, which would be deferred at the date of the initial sale. The Group has chosen to ‘early adopt’ this interpretation, the results for the year ended March 31, 2008, have been restated accordingly. The net impact on the income statement for the year ended March 31, 2008, is a £5 million increase in total revenue, a £2 million increase in expenditure on operations and a £7 million increase to the taxation charge for the year. The net impact to the balance sheet as at March 31, 2008, is a £206 million decrease in shareholders’ equity, a £285 million increase in trade and other payables and a £79 million decrease in the provision for deferred tax.

IFRIC 14 ‘Limit on a Defined Benefit Asset, Minimum Funding Requirements and Their Interaction’ is effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2008, and provides guidance on assessing the limit in IAS 19 ‘Employee Benefits’, on the amount of the surplus that can be recognised as an asset. It also provides guidance on how the pension asset or liability may be affected by a statutory or contractual minimum-funding requirement. The results for the year ended March 31, 2008, have been restated accordingly. The net impact on the income statement for the year ended March 31, 2008, is a £36 million increase in finance income. The net impact on the balance sheet as at March 31, 2008, is a £235 million increase to shareholders’ equity and a £235 million increase in employee benefit assets.

IFRS 8 ‘Operating Segments’ is effective for annual periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009. IFRS 8 requires a ‘management approach’, under which segment information is presented on the same basis as that used for internal reporting purposes. The Group has chosen to early adopt IFRS 8. All disclosures relating to segment information including all comparative information have been updated to reflect the new requirements. The composition of the Group’s business segments has not changed as a result of the adoption of IFRS 8.

New standards, amendments and interpretations not yet effective

The IASB and IFRIC issued the following standards, amendments and interpretations with an effective date after the date of these financial statements which management believe could impact the Group in future periods. Management has not yet determined the potential effect of the amendments.

IFRS 2 (Amendment) ‘Share Based Payments – Vesting Conditions and Cancellations’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, clarifies that only service and performance conditions are vesting conditions, and other features of a share-based payment are not vesting conditions. In addition, it specifies that all cancellations, whether by the entity or by other parties, should receive the same accounting treatment. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

IAS 28 (Amendment) ‘Investments in Associates’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, subject to EU endorsement, requires an investment in an associate to be treated as a single asset for the purposes of impairment testing. Any impairment loss is not allocated to specific assets included within the investment. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

IAS 36 (Amendment) ‘Impairment of Assets’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, subject to EU endorsement, requires that where the fair value less costs to sell is calculated on the basis of discounted cash flows, disclosures equivalent to those for value-in-use calculations should be made. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

IAS 38 (Amendment) ‘Intangible Assets’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, subject to EU endorsement, requires that expenditure on advertising and promotional activities be recognised as an expense as soon as the entity has the ‘right to access’ the goods or has received the services. Advertising and promotional goods now specifically include mail order catalogues. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

IAS 39 (Amendment) ‘Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, allows the reclassification of derivative instruments into or out of the classification of ‘at fair value through profit or loss’. Furthermore, the amendment offers guidance on the designation and documentation of hedges at the segment level and the applicable interest rate on cessation of fair value hedge accounting. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

IFRS 7 (Amendment) ‘Financial Instruments: Disclosure’; effective for periods beginning on or after January 1, 2009, subject to EU endorsement. The amendment requires enhanced disclosure about fair value measurements and liquidity risks relating to financial instruments. The Group will apply this amendment from April 1, 2009.

There are no other standards and interpretations in issue but not yet adopted that the directors anticipate will have a material effect on the reported income or net assets of the Group.

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